Merriam-Webster added “Chinese restaurant syndrome” to its dictionary in 1968. The definition described symptoms affecting “susceptible persons eating food and especially Chinese food heavily seasoned with monosodium glutamate.”
The entry came shortly after a physician, Robert Ho Man Kwok, wrote The New England Journal of Medicine to describe an unusual malady. Whenever he ate at a Chinese restaurant, he said, he felt a peculiar numbness.
At first, his letter drew little attention. But six weeks later, the Journal published 10 more, including seven from physicians, describing similar symptoms: numbness, headaches and palpitations after eating Chinese food. The doctors speculated that the cause was a preservative, monosodium glutamate or MSG.
On Tuesday, activists took to social media to persuade Merriam-Webster to update the entry. The #RedefineCRS campaign was conceived by Ajinomoto, a Japanese company that developed and has been the leading producer of MSG worldwide since 1909.
“We felt it was important to highlight the outdated definition of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome in light of the extensive human research proving MSG is not linked to such symptoms in food,” said Tia Rains, the senior director of public relations for Ajinomoto, in an email.
After the term had been defined in the ’60s, food companies were quick to label the preservative, which adds umami flavor to a dish, as a toxin. Chinese restaurants began displaying signs: “NO MSG.” It was removed from baby food. A generation of American eaters grew up thinking MSG was dirty, or dangerous.
But MSG isn’t bad for you. (And it’s not even Chinese-food specific — it’s added to ranch dressing, ramen and McDonald’s upcoming fried chicken sandwich. Glutamic acid itself occurs naturally in some tomatoes, mushrooms and cheese.) Some doctors think the reported symptoms might be caused by sodium; others wonder if it’s just confirmation bias.
Ajinomoto approached Eddie Huang, the restaurateur and comedian, and Jeannie Mai, a television personality, to lead the #RedefineCRS campaign, in the hope they can change social perceptions about their product. Mr. Huang, Ms. Mai and Ajinomoto declined to answer questions about if, or how, the stars were compensated for their participation.
“I was shocked that Chinese Restaurant Syndrome was an actual term in a dictionary,” said Mr. Huang, whose autobiography was adapted for a sitcom, “Fresh Off the Boat,” in an email.
They are targeting a receptive publication. Merriam-Webster, which is the oldest dictionary publisher in the country, has recently earned a progressive reputation.
Its 2019 word of the year was “they”: a singular gender neutral pronoun for transgender and nonbinary people. And, since at least the 2016 election, its Twitter account has had word-nerds cackling at passive-aggressive posts of definitions of words used incorrectly by politicians.
“We record the language — we do not create, sanction or promote any specific words; the language’s speakers do this, and we provide a record of this use,” said Emily Brewster, a senior editor at Merriam-Webster, in an email.
Ms. Brewster said that the publisher had no record of anyone contacting them about the term until Tuesday morning, and that they were “grateful” for the heads-up.
The stigma around MSG fueled — or, perhaps, was fueled by — long-held racist stereotypes.
When the United States lifted race-targeting immigration quotas in the 1965, many Chinese immigrants, fleeing the Cultural Revolution, settled in the United States and opened restaurants, many of which used MSG.
“We eat Chinese food three times a day all year and we never have headaches or numbness or anything else,” said Roy K.C. Chen, the owner of the Mandarin Inn in Manhattan’s Chinatown, in a 1968 article by The New York Times about the controversy.
Even now, MSG is shunned in some circles. Lucky Lee’s, a widely criticized (and now shuttered) Chinese-inspired restaurant owned by a white health coach in Manhattan, advertised “clean” versions of the cuisine which, among other ingredients, would not be made with MSG.
“As soon as I heard the actual definition for Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, it hurt because I know it’s steeped in decades of xenophobia,” said Ms. Mai, who has a Vietnamese background, in an email.
The #RedefineCRS campaign comes at a time when the country is grappling with relics of historic prejudice. Monuments to soldiers that fought for the Confederate Army in Civil War are being removed, reconsidered and challenged through adjacent art pieces across the country. Some local governments have banned — and some are fighting to reinstate — sport mascots or names reminiscent of stereotypes about Native Americans.
There is a long history of anti-Chinese policies in the United States. President Chester A. Arthur signed the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882, arguably the first anti-immigrant law directed at a specific nationality. It was not revoked until 1943, after the two countries were allies in World War II.
Merriam-Webster only deletes an entry when the term is no longer in use, Ms. Brewster said. (They removed “air tourist,” which once referred to nonfirst class airline travelers, and consolidated “threepenny bit” and “threepenny piece” into a single entry.) It labels slurs as “offensive” or “obscene” within the definition, documenting the historical past and cultural function.
“Were we to ignore certain words on the grounds that they are offensive we would be negligent in our duty as lexicographers,” Ms. Brewster said in the email.
“That said,” she continued, “we certainly aim to be mindful of the inevitable shifts in language, and we regularly update both definitions and usage labels to reflect changes.”
Even as such artifacts of stereotypes and oppressive pasts are unearthed and recast, questions remain about how to address a problematic history. Some activists believe such offenses should be removed without a trace, while others worry that approach can cause cultural amnesia. Some believe in adding updates or challenges to the item to live alongside it, while others think that carries a racist past forward.
In the case of Chinese restaurant syndrome, the activists hope Merriam-Webster will seek a thoughtful reconsideration, turning the phrase into a fragment of a different time.
“I don’t think it should be simply removed,” Ms. Mai said in an email. “There’s a lot of history and education that needs to be done around MSG and Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, so I hope redefining the term accomplishes that.”
Follow NYT Food on Twitter and NYT Cooking on Instagram, Facebook, YouTube and Pinterest. Get regular updates from NYT Cooking, with recipe suggestions, cooking tips and shopping advice.
Source: Thanks https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/16/dining/msg-chinese-restaurant-syndrome-merriam-webster-dictionary.html